University researchers challenge Bush win in Florida
'Something went awry with electronic voting in Florida,' says
the lead researcher
News Story by Dan Verton
NOVEMBER 18, 2004 (COMPUTERWORLD) - Researchers at the University of California, Berkeley, said today that they have
uncovered statistical irregularities associated with electronic voting machines in three Florida counties that may have given
President George W. Bush 130,000 or more excess votes. The researchers are now calling on state and federal authorities to
look into the problems.
The study, "The Effect of Electronic Voting Machines on Change in Support for Bush in the 2004
Florida Elections," was conducted by doctoral students and faculty from the university's sociology department and led by sociology
professor Michael Hout.
Hout is an expert on statistical methods at the Berkeley Survey Research Center and a member of the National Academy
According to the study, counties with electronic voting machines were significantly more likely to show increases in
support for Bush between 2000 and 2004 compared to counties with paper ballots or optical scan equipment. This change cannot
be explained by differences between counties in income, number of voters, change in voter turnout, or size of the Hispanic/Latino
population, said Hout.
In Broward County, for example, Bush appears to have received approximately 72,000 excess votes, Hout said, adding that
the research team is 99.9% sure that these effects are not attributable to chance. The other two counties that experienced
unexplained statistical discrepancies in the vote are Miami-Dade and Palm Beach. The three counties revealed the most significant
irregularities and were the most heavily Democratic counties in the state. Smaller counties that showed strong support for
Bush didn't produce any statistical anomalies, Hout said.
"For the sake of all future elections involving e-voting systems, someone must investigate and explain the statistical
anomaly we found in Florida," Hout said at a news conference today. continued>>
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